From UFStarfleet Wiki
The Starfleet Exploratory Division is a blended division to link the United Federation of Planets' Starfleet and the United Earth Space Probe Agency to enable communication and planning between the two organizations. The head of the SED is a Starfleet admiral, this was agreed upon for two main reasons, Starfleet personnel would have a more in depth knowledge of the ships, people and procedures they will follow to assign the best people and for the simple fact Starfleet Captains would not like having a civilian tell them what to do.
Starfleet will assign ships to the Exploratory Division to be sent on deep space exploration like the Luna class or follow up missions on discoveries made by servery probes or ships not able to properly study planets or phenomenon.
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